Gastroduodenitis is a different intensity inflammation of the gastric mucosa and duodenal ulcer. What is the difference between gastritis and gastroduodenitis? With gastritis, only the gastric mucosa suffers, but with gastroduodenitis, the pathological process has already stepped beyond its limits, and spread to the mucous layer of the duodenum.
Just like that, for no apparent reason, gastroduodenitis does not develop, and its appearance, as a rule, is preceded by the confluence of several unfavorable factors at once. As a rule, this disease affects people who have previously had to deal with various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, ranging from banal dysbiosis to gastritis.
However, the banal inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach or duodenum can be easily eliminated with the help of medicines or folk remedies. But if it lasts for quite a long time and is aggravated by stress, nervous breakdown, depression, or eating a dry ration, it can be said with confidence that it is unlikely that it will be possible to avoid gastroduodenitis.
Why does gastroduodenitis arise, and what is it? The occurrence of gastroduodenitis is associated with improper and irregular nutrition, harmful habits (well-known smoking, drinking alcohol), stress, taking certain groups of drugs, intestinal infections and a number of other factors.
When this occurs, an increase or, conversely, a decrease in the acidity of the gastric juice, which affects the protective mucous layer, the speed and quality of food digestion. Reduction of protective properties leads to the reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms (first of all - Helicobacter pylori) and direct damage to the gastric mucosa. Inflammation develops, which gradually passes to the duodenal mucosa.
Inflammation of the duodenum may occur suddenly (acute gastroduodenitis), but most often the disease occurs in a chronic form with less pronounced symptomatology. As a rule, the exacerbation of chronic gastroduodenitis occurs in spring and autumn with the subsequent phase of remission. The severity of the period of exacerbation is determined by the strength of the pain and their duration, as well as the general condition of the patient.
After 2 to 3 months, the inflammation goes into an incomplete stage (if endoscopy reveals signs of gastroduodenitis) or complete remission (if there are no clinical manifestations).
The following symptoms are characteristic of gastroduodenitis: loss of appetite, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, belching sour, bitter or air, unpleasant taste in the mouth, bloating. Another common sign of gastroduodenitis is pain in the epigastric or paraumbilical region.
The intensity of the pain depends on the nature of the impaired secretory and motor functions. If the secretory function is normal or increased, persistent pains are characteristic of such gastroduodenitis. Pain can also occur on an empty stomach, after a short period of time or 1-2 hours after a meal, rarely at night. Sometimes, instead of pain (the equivalent of pain), a feeling of rapid food saturation may occur.
The symptoms of superficial gastroduodenitis are more smooth. Its treatment is focused on the elimination of irritants and the normalization of digestive processes. At the same time, the mucous membrane is inflamed only in the upper layers, the walls may thicken, but atrophic processes are not observed.
The symptoms of erosive gastroduodenitis are the most unpleasant and painful and treatment is therefore required immediately. The stomach and the intestine are covered with numerous foci of inflammation with small sores - the so-called erosion. If nausea in the vomit may be particles of mucus and bloody impurities.
Outside of exacerbations, gastroduodenitis symptoms are expressed in:
- feeling of heaviness and overcrowding in the pit of the stomach;
- increased irritability, fatigue, sleep disturbance, loss of body weight despite the presence of preserved or even increased appetite;
- nagging pain of constant character in the same area and / or heartburn before eating for 1.5 - 2 hours, passing after eating, but again increasing after 2 hours;
- characteristic are pains that occur after eating 2–2.5 hours, accompanied by nausea and passing after artificially induced vomiting;
- non-intense pain on palpation (palpation) of the abdomen in the same departments;
- the tongue is coated with white bloom, a feeling of bitterness or “metallic” taste in the mouth;
- night pains of whining character, also disappearing after meals;
- constipation with increased acidity and constipation, sometimes alternating diarrhea with a reduced secretory function.
In contrast to the acute form, the chronic course of the disease has a cyclical nature, and the severity of symptoms depends largely on the depth and area of inflammation of the gastric mucosa and duodenal bulb, acidity and general state of the body.
Treatment of gastroduodenitis in a chronic form, regardless of whether the patient’s superficial gastroduodenitis, or mixed, or of any other type, should be complex. During the quiet period, the patient must follow the diet table number 5, observe diet and rest, balneotherapy gives very good results, a preventive course of spa treatment is recommended once a year.
Even if complete remission is achieved, it is necessary to remember about your propensity for gastroduodenitis, and for preventive purposes to observe the rules of healthy eating throughout your life.
Based on the symptoms of gastroduodenitis, an additional instrumental and laboratory examination is appointed, which includes:
- Ultrasound examination (ultrasound) of the stomach - the presence of an ulcer can be visualized on a modern ultrasound machine, used to exclude a peptic ulcer;
- Endoscopically, gastroduodenitis usually reveals focal or diffuse hyperemia of the mucous membrane, edema, fold hypertrophy, etc. Sometimes the mucous membrane appears to be pale, thinned, with smooth folds. This is typical of an atrophic process, but the presence or absence of atrophy and its degree can be assessed only histologically.
- Radiography of the stomach with barium is not a method for diagnosing HGD, but can be used to evaluate evacuation function in differential diagnosis with other diseases (congenital malformations, pyloric stenosis, tumors, chronic duodenal obstruction, etc.).
It is also necessary to conduct a study of gastric secretion - pH-metry of the stomach and duodenum. According to the results of the research, it is possible to determine what form the gastroduodenitis has - with high or low acidity, and, accordingly, to prescribe the correct treatment.
How to treat gastroduodenitis
When symptoms of gastroduodenitis appear, treatment in adults should be based on the principles of an individual approach to each patient, that is, the choice of inpatient or outpatient treatment and regimen (bed, semi-bed, ward). Great importance is given to proper diet, adequate and reasonable prescription of medicines.
The principles of gastroduodenitis treatment are identical to the treatment of chronic gastritis:
- during the exacerbation, the patient is recommended 7-8 days in bed;
- Special attention is paid to diet: the first days of the acute period - table number 1, in the future - table number 5, during remission - a balanced and complete diet;
- three-component therapy for 7–10 days helps to get rid of infecting bacteria (Helicobacter pylori);
- to reduce acidity in the stomach, patients are prescribed H2-blocking histamine receptor blockers;
- if the need arises, treatment of gastroduodenitis includes drugs that regulate the motor function of organs;
- rehabilitation after the crisis includes physiotherapeutic procedures, physiotherapy exercises, as well as stays in specialized sanatorium-resort institutions.
Patients with an intense pain syndrome, or if there are symptoms of bleeding of the gastrointestinal tract during erosive gastroduodenitis, are usually hospitalized. For children, an important reason for hospitalization becomes an unfavorable home environment, various stressful situations.
Preparations for the treatment of gastroduodenitis
The choice of drugs depends on the type and causes of gastroduodenitis. If the examination revealed Helicobacter pylori infection, then antibacterial therapy is carried out. Usually use a combination of 2-3 antibiotics. In chronic gastroduodenitis with high acidity, proton pump inhibitors, antacid and antihistamines are used.
If mucosal atrophy is detected, bismuth preparations are prescribed. You can use antispasmodics and drugs that improve gastrointestinal motility. To normalize the activity of the nervous system use various sedatives, herbal remedies.
Compliance with certain rules of nutrition is one of the basic principles of treatment of gastroduodenitis at home. The main purpose of the purpose of the diet is to restore impaired gastric function (both motor and secretory), as well as positively affect the structure of the mucous membrane.
The basis of the treatment of gastroduodenitis is diet No. 1, which is eventually replaced with diet No. 5. At the same time, soups in meat, mushroom or fish broth, boiled chicken, dairy products, cereals, eggs, fruits and vegetables, lean meat should prevail in the diet. Following the principles of fractional nutrition, the number of meals is increased to 5-6, but the size of portions is reduced.
In the treatment of gastroduodenitis folk remedies need to apply an integrated approach. Medicinal herbs perfectly cope with the chronic type of the disease and go well with diet.
To get rid of the disease successfully used decoctions:
- dill seed,
- valerian root,
- hops, etc.
It is possible to eliminate the pathology on your own only in case of superficial inflammation and if the illness develops without complications. Doctors do not give a direct answer to whether gastroduodenitis can be cured. Difficult forms of the disease is not easy to overcome. Nevertheless, a strict diet, regular intake of medicines prescribed by a doctor and physiotherapy will be able to prevent possible complications by making life more pleasant.
With gastroduodenitis, the prognosis is favorable only with regular examination by a gastroenterologist and compliance with his recommendations for proper nutrition and lifestyle.
In patients who do not adhere to the diet, do not undergo a full course of treatment for exacerbations, chronic gastroduodenitis turns into gastric ulcer, which can lead to a significant deterioration of the condition and serious complications.