The appearance of cylinders in the urine is called cylindruria. They represent a kind of sediment in the liquid when urinating, having a cylindrical shape.
Various types of cylinders provide an opportunity to recognize diseases of the lower zone of the urogenital tract (urethritis, etc.), as well as developing impairment of renal function.
The detected cylinders upon delivery of urinalysis, which include red blood cells, indicate an aggravated diffuse glomerulonephritis. If bacterial cylinders were detected in urine, this indicates the presence of bacterial pyelonephritis. In addition, the cylinders carry only those harmful microorganisms that provoked the appearance of the disease.
Urine Cylinders - What Does It Mean?
Depending on which pathological processes occur in the urinary system of a person, various pathological cylinders appear in the urine. Therefore, the laboratory technician and indicates which cylinders in the general analysis of urine detected, namely:
- Hyaline cylinders - can stand out against the background of complete human health, microscopy of the urinary sediment should normally be no more than 1-2 cylinders per field of view.
- Granular cylinders - are a protein cast of tubules with an admixture of renal epithelial cells.
- Waxy cylinders - are the formation of a homogeneous translucent mass.
- Erythrocyte cylinders indicate the renal origin of hematuria (with acute glomerulonephritis, chronic glomerulonephritis, kidney cancer, fornical hemorrhage, etc.).
- Epithelial cylinders in the absence of pathology by-checks in the urine are not detected. The appearance of epithelial cylinders indicates severe degenerative changes in the tubular apparatus of the kidneys. Occur with nephros and severe lesions (sublimate, etc.).
- Pseudocylinders are formed from mucus and resemble hyine cylinders. Can be formed from the sediment of uric acid salts: they are red in color, resembling pigment blood cylinders.
What does it mean? The appearance of cylinders of any type in the urine is an alarm signal indicating that the functional units of the kidneys - the nephrons - are under attack.
Hyaline Cylinders in Urine
Formed from denatured protein in the renal tubules under the influence of acidic urine. Extremely gentle, pale, transparent formations, with bright light barely noticeable, to better diagnose the sediment can tint methylene blue, gentian violet, eosin, iodine tincture. On their surface there may be a slight granularity due to the deposition of amorphous salts or cellular debris, which may hinder their differentiation from granular cylinders.
Normally, the number of hyaline cylinders does not exceed 1-2 in the preparation; they appear during physical exertion, fever, constant presence of protein in the urine, nephrotic syndrome, measles, rubella, chickenpox, influenza, parainfluenza, adenovirus infection, polio, parotitis, HIV / AIDS and other infectious diseases (whooping cough, scarlet fever, diphtheria, meningococcal infection, tuberculosis) accompanied by fever.
Granular urine cylinders
It is an impression of a kidney tubule consisting of a protein coagulated in acidic urine, with dystrophically altered tubule epithelium cells adhering to the surface of it. As a result, C. are becoming grainy, and their color is darker compared to hyaline C.
Granular cylinders in the urine appear on the background of diseases involving renal tubular damage and proteinuria (protein in the urine): chronic glomerulonephritis, kidney amyloidosis, diabetic nephropathy, pyelonephritis, viral diseases accompanied by fever.
Waxy Cylinders in Urine
Waxy cylinders are composed of a homogeneous structureless material, similar to yellowish wax; formed in the distal tubules due to dystrophy and atrophy (necrobiosis) of the tubular epithelium of these departments, which is usually observed in severe acute kidney damage (for example, in subacute malignant glomerulonephritis) or in the late stage of renal diseases and chronic renal failure. Therefore, their detection in the urine is regarded as a prognostic unfavorable symptom.
Especially characteristic of pyelonephritis, to a lesser extent for lupus nephritis and some other diseases.
They are of renal origin and appear when necrosis of the renal tubules, poisoning by heavy metals. The appearance of these cylinders is an indicator of allograft rejection (a few days after the operation).
Present in the urine with acute progressive glomerulonephritis and some other renal diseases (renal infarction, renal vein thrombosis), as well as with polyarthritis, severe hypertension.
The formation of a cylindrical shape, consisting of mucus. Single cylindroids can sometimes occur in the urine of a healthy person. A significant number of them can be found in inflammatory processes in the urinary tract.