Urethritis in men is a urological disease in which the urethra is affected. The inflammatory process can begin under the influence of many factors. Urethritis are divided into two large groups: non-infectious and infectious.
Infectious urethritis can be caused by various specific pathogens (gardnerella, gonococci), as well as non-specific (E. coli, staphylococcus, streptococcus).
The most susceptible to this disease are those who are sexually disordered, suffer from urolithiasis, diabetes, underwent instrumental examinations of the bladder and urethra.
Urethritis can be divided into the following types:
- The primary characteristic of the type is that the inflammatory process directly affects the urethra, which often occurs during sexual intercourse.
- Secondary - the type of character in the infection in the urethra itself from the inflammation, which is usually found in adjacent organs (for example, in the prostate gland, bladder, seminal vesicles, as well as in other pelvic organs).
Depending on the causative microbial agents, specific and nonspecific urethritis are distinguished.
Causes of non-specific damage:
- staphylococcal bacteria,
- streptococcal microorganisms,
- E. coli and other bacterial pathogens.
Specific urethritis is most often caused by those pathogens that cause sexually transmitted diseases.
Types of non-specific urethritis:
- Gonorrheal (gonococcus pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae).
- Mycoplasma (caused by mycoplasmas).
- Ureaplasma (caused by ureaplasmas, Ureaplasma urealyticum).
- Gardnerella (called Gardnerella, Gardnerella vaginalis).
- Trichomonas (caused by Trichomonas, Trichomonas vaginalis);
- Mycotic (caused by mushrooms).
- Chlamydia (caused by chlamydia, Chlamydia trachomatis).
- Viral (caused by viruses, oklogenitalny chlamydia, herpes).
- Bacterial (caused by staphylococci, streptococci, Escherichia coli, Proteus, Klebsiella, Enterococcus, Pseudomuscular bacillus, Corynebacteria).
- Mixed urethritis is caused by several different infections.
Types of non-infectious urethritis:
- Traumatic - occurs after cystoscopy, urethroscopy, catheterization, bougienage, introduction of foreign bodies into the urethra, after ruptures and tears of the urethra;
- Allergic - occurs as an allergic reaction with intolerance to any substances;
Congestive - occurs when venous congestion in the pelvic organs.
Hypothermia of the body provokes the onset of the disease, medical manipulations - bladder catheterization or smear collection, penile trauma, and foci of chronic infection in the body. Symptoms of specific urethritis in men tend to develop after intercourse.
Symptoms of urethritis in men
Depending on the type of pathogen that provoked this disease and its stages, the picture of the symptoms may vary from stormy manifestations to asymptomatic.
Symptoms of infectious urethritis usually occur 5–14 days after infection, and signs of non-infectious urethritis can appear much earlier (see photo). In men, the main symptom is pain, burning along the urethra during urination, and also after it.
Also, a person may be disturbed by mucous or purulent discharge from the opening of the urethra, gluing and reddening of the sponges of the urethra, especially in the morning, you may receive seminal fluid or blood in the urine.
If you do not miss the symptoms of urethritis and consult a specialist in time, the acute form can be treated in 7-10 days without any complications. However, if acute urethritis is not treated, the symptoms subside, and the disease will turn into a chronic form in 1-2 weeks.
Symptoms according to type
The table presents the most characteristic symptoms of urethritis for its various types.
|Traumatic||Symptoms depend on the nature of the injury - it is a burning sensation and pain when urinating.|
|Allergic||Also pain and burning, however, a feature is the presence of allergic edema.|
|Congressive||Classic symptoms are often completely absent. Manifested by different types of sexual dysfunction.|
|Tuberculosis||In most cases, it occurs on the background of kidney tuberculosis or genital tuberculosis. Mycotic bacteria of tuberculosis penetrate into the urethra with the flow of urine. There is little symptom (sweating, fatigue, low-grade fever).|
|Gardnerella||The incubation period is from one week to several months. In most cases, is present as a component of mixed urethritis.|
|Chlamydia||Rezi and burning are absent, insignificant discharge. In most cases, proceeds according to the chronic type.|
|Ureaplasma||Most often accompanied by trichomoniasis or gonorrheal urethritis. The incubation period is about 1 month. There are green or white discharge, there is a burning sensation and itching when urinating. The exacerbation of symptoms occurs on the background of sexual intercourse or alcohol intake.|
|Mycotic||The incubation period is about 20 days, there is burning and itching. The discharge is watery or slimy, sometimes pale pink in color.|
|Bacterial||Purulent discharge. Symptomatology erased. The incubation period can last several months.|
|Trichomonas||It is characterized by constant itching in the area of the head of the penis, the presence of grayish-white discharge and difficulty urinating are also characteristic.|
|Viral||The course of the pathology is sluggish, the symptoms are mild. May be supplemented with conjunctivitis or joint inflammation.|
|Mycoplasma||Quite rarely occurs in isolation. In most cases, combined with gonorrheal or trichomonas urethritis.|
|Gonorrheal||Gray-yellow discharge from the urethra, acute pain at the time of urination. Contained in the urine pus gives it a cloudy color. There are impurities of blood in the semen and urine.|
The disease can go on for months and even years, but in the end the patient still seeks medical help. Chronic urethritis in men is dangerous in that against its background complications may develop, for example, chronic prostatitis or stricture of the urethra.
Urethritis at a chronic stage is much more difficult to treat than at the stage of acute inflammation, since it requires the introduction of drugs directly into the urethra.
At the first signs of urethritis, it is important to consult a urologist. In some cases, when the disease was promoted by a genital infection, consultation of a dermatovenereologist is indicated.
To determine the diagnosis, especially if the disease is asymptomatic, sometimes a medical examination is not enough. The main research methods include urine analysis, which is considered the most simple. If there is an increased level of leukocytes in the urine, this indicates an inflammatory process. Usually the analysis is done in the morning. To do this, take the first portion of the liquid. For testing for bacterial urethritis prescribed mandatory blood test.
Additional methods for the study of bacterial urethritis include:
- Three-glass test;
- Urine analysis according to Nechyporenko;
- Urine culture;
- Polymerase chain reaction secretions (PCR);
- If there is an increased indicator of leukocyte cells in the blood and urine, there is protein in the urine (proteinuria), this may indicate a bacterial urethritis.
Obligatory method is a smear from the urethra, it is bacteriological and microscopic. To prepare for such a diagnosis, sexual intercourse, the use of any antibiotics should be excluded the day before the procedure. In addition, you can not urinate about two hours before smear. An ultrasound examination of the bladder, kidneys, prostate and ureters may also be prescribed.
Treatment of urethritis in men
First of all, the doctor must identify the causative agent of the disease and only then engage in its treatment. After all, incorrectly prescribed drugs can easily transfer the disease from the acute to the chronic form. The symptoms of the disease will disappear, and the man will assume that he is completely cured, however, with the slightest decrease in immunity, the urethritis will become aggravated again.
- The main treatment for urethritis in men is the prescription of certain drugs, that is, the use of antibiotics. Most importantly, the pathogens are sensitive to them. For this you need to conduct a series of diagnostic studies.
- Simultaneously with antibiotic therapy, local antiseptic treatment is carried out, which consists in washing the glans penis with antiseptic solutions (chamomile decoction, furatsilina solution and others). It is also recommended to carry out baths (lasting 15-20 minutes) with the use of these tools.
During the course of the disease, a rich drinking drink is recommended and a strict diet is prescribed. Additionally, immunomodulators will be prescribed to help the body cope with the infection.
When treating urethritis in men, it is important that the time for starting a qualified therapy is started. If it is started on time and carried out correctly, the disease will disappear without a trace.
Features of treatment of various types of urethritis
Depending on who is the causative agent of urethritis, treatment with drugs for men will vary significantly.
- Bacterial and gonorrheal. Good effect in gonorrheal urethritis is achieved with the use of cephalosporin antibiotics. Tetracycline, erythromycin, oletretrin, kanamycin can also be administered.
- Ureaplasma, gardnerelezny, mycoplasmal urethritis. The treatment is carried out with the help of tetracycline drugs (Doxycycline), fluoroquinols, macrolides (Clarithromycin), linkosamides together with immunostimulants.
- Trichomonas. The drugs of choice are metronidazole, trichopol, metrogyl. If the course of Trichomonas urethritis is chronic, antibiotic therapy is added to the treatment.
- Candida. Requires antifungal medications to cope with Candida. Assign fluconazole, clotrimazole, nystatin, pimafucin.
- Chlamydia. The most effective antibiotic that allows you to successfully fight against the pathology is Azithromycin. If you choose the wrong drug, chlamydia urethritis can lead to serious complications - infertility, Reiter's syndrome, epididymitis, inflammatory diseases.
Self-treatment with strong broad-spectrum antibiotics without a clear treatment regimen can lead to the development of drug resistance of the pathogen and the transition of the disease to the chronic form.
Urethritis is a serious disease, do not hesitate to contact your doctor with this problem, because late or incorrect treatment can lead to serious complications. It is possible that the infection spreads to other organs, patients may develop cystitis, pyelonephritis, the inflammatory process can affect the testes and their appendages.
The most serious complication of urethritis in men is prostatitis, which can lead to incurable sterility and sexual dysfunction.
To minimize the risk of getting urethritis, men should follow these rules:
- avoid injuries of the penis;
- drink enough fluids;
- avoid frequent changes of sexual partners;
- timely treat any diseases;
- avoid hypothermia.