Tonsillitis affects the tonsils, thereby causing inflammation in them. It belongs to the group of infectious diseases, the causative agent of which is a viral or bacterial infection.
Acute tonsillitis is often referred to as angina, and its chronic form is diagnosed in 10-15% of the world's population. The characteristic symptoms of tonsillitis are manifested in an increase in body temperature, which is accompanied by pain in a grief of varying intensity.
The disease may be acute or chronic. The following bacteria can be the causative agent of tonsillitis: staphylococcus, meningococcus, anaerob, streptococcus, pneumococcus, in rare cases, stick of typhoid fever. The source of infection in angina is a patient with various forms of acute diseases and a carrier of pathogenic microorganisms.
Predisposing factors: hypothermia, decreased immunity, tonsil damage, violation of nasal breathing, chronic inflammation in the mouth, nose and paranasal sinuses. Most often, tonsillitis develops after suffering ARVI. The causative agents of SARS reduce the protective functions of the epithelial cover and contribute to the invasion of streptococci.
In children, tonsillitis is often the result of various diseases: adenoids, polyps, congenital curvature of the nasal septum, impaired breathing.
With the wrong treatment or its absence, a weakened body or the presence of other chronic diseases, acute tonsillitis can become chronic, which is characterized by periodic exacerbations. In the interval between exacerbations, a person may feel practically healthy, while even with an objective examination of the ENT doctor, he does not always find pathological changes in the tonsils themselves.
Symptoms of tonsillitis
Tonsillitis and its symptoms will vary significantly, depending on the form of the process. The incubation period of tonsillitis is very short, only 1-2 days. After that, adults and children begin to develop symptoms that are classic for tonsillitis.
The disease begins suddenly, the first signs of tonsillitis:
- regional lymphadenopathy;
- sore throat when swallowing;
- high fever with chills;
- aching joints, general weakness;
Sore throat gradually increases, becomes constant, reaches a maximum on the second day. On examination of the pharynx, it is possible to see reddened, enlarged tonsils, many patients have follicles with pus.
Regional lymph nodes grow and become painful. The severity of fever, intoxication and pharyngoscopic picture depend on the form of the disease (catarrhal, lacunar, follicular, etc.). If you are not in time puzzled by the question - how and how to treat tonsillitis, then over time it becomes chronic.
Unlike angina, chronic tonsillitis is more difficult to diagnose, as it can proceed without visible symptoms, periodically turning into an acute form.
The most characteristic symptoms of chronic tonsillitis are:
- recurrent or persistent pain when swallowing food or saliva;
- frequent episodes of angina and severe illness;
- pain in the submandibular lymph nodes;
- dryness, soreness and sore throat;
- release of purulent congestion during coughing;
- pain in the region of the heart muscle, as well as in the joints of the patient;
- periodic slight increase in temperature.
Chronic tonsillitis can occur in a compensated and decompensated (with damage to the heart, kidneys, joints, chronic intoxication) form. Therefore, do not hesitate, the faster you can cure tonsillitis, the less you get complications. How to do it once and for all, you will be prompted by an experienced specialist.
The most terrible consequence of untreated angina is rheumatism, which affects the joints, the valvular apparatus of the heart, leads to the formation of heart defects and the development of heart failure.
Treatment of tonsillitis
As a rule, treatment of tonsillitis is carried out at home with the condition of adherence to bed rest.
Given that in most cases a sore throat is caused by streptococci, then a course of antibiotics is prescribed by the doctor for the treatment of tonsillitis, and if necessary, antiviral therapy. In parallel with the reception of antibiotics, it is necessary to use local antiseptics that relieve pain (Hexoral, Bioparox, Stop Angin).
In addition, conservative treatment involves flushing the tonsils (in order to remove purulent plugs) and lubrication with Lugol solution, physiotherapy. To eliminate pain and fever, they are prescribed NSAIDs - Paracetamol, Analgin, Ibuprofen, and others.
Need a sparing diet rich in vitamins C and B group, plenty of drink. Do not forget about gargling with special preparations, including those based on natural ingredients. If outpatient treatment did not lead to success, then the question of surgical intervention is considered. Most often the tonsils are simply removed as the main source of threat.
It must be remembered that with the wrong treatment of acute tonsillitis or its absence, it is chronized. And in how to treat tonsillitis in a chronic form, the opinions of doctors currently diverge. The choice of treatment regimen in each case depends on the form of chronic tonsillitis, the general condition of the patient, the presence of concomitant diseases, etc.
Antibiotics for tonsillitis
Appointment of antibiotics is justified only in severe form of the disease. It must be remembered that antibiotics are drugs against bacteria, so they are prescribed only when the bacterial flora acts as pathogens.
Most likely, you will be prescribed antibacterial drugs from the penicillin group:
If you are allergic to this component, antibiotics are prescribed from the macrolide group:
The spectrum of antibacterial drugs for the treatment of acute tonsillitis is very extensive. The final decision on the appropriateness of the use of a drug should be made by the doctor. In addition, even a clear improvement in health does not give a reason to violate the regime, diet and stop taking antibiotics. Treatment must necessarily be completed to completely destroy the bacteria.
How to treat tonsillitis at home
To be most effective, home treatment should simultaneously eliminate unpleasant symptoms, causes of illness, and fight infection.
Basic principles of home treatment:
- strict bed rest;
- heavy drinking;
- special diet;
- inhalation and gargling with antiseptic solutions and herbal decoctions;
- irrigation of glands with antiseptic preparations;
- taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to reduce fever and pain;
- taking immunomodulators and vitamins;
- taking appropriate antibiotics as prescribed by the doctor.
With a prolonged absence of a positive therapeutic effect or the development of human complications, they are sent to a hospital.
Treatment of folk remedies
The use of folk remedies can be used as an addition to traditional medicine, it is not recommended to prescribe such a treatment yourself, without the advice of a doctor. Of the folk remedies for treating tonsillitis, gargling with broths and pharmaceutical preparations is widely used.
- Healing herbs - chamomile, marsh mallow, sage, coltsfoot, calendula, decoction of oak bark, St. John's wort;
- Drugstores - Miramistin, Furatsilin, Malavit;
- A simple way to use - salt, soda and iodine;
- Inhalations are also made with decoctions of medicinal herbs (eucalyptus, sage, chamomile, etc.).
Mostly traditional methods of treatment are aimed at reducing inflammation in the pharynx, strengthening the immune system, and early recovery after an illness. As the only method of treatment folk recipes are not suitable.